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Конференции 13.02.2014 15:10

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Новая конференция 10.02.2014 12:23

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Открытие узбекских биотехнологов, имеющее мировое значение 10.02.2014 12:05

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Новые данные по использованию RNAi технологии для улучшения хлопчатника 03.02.2014 17:10

New Data Published on RNAi-based Cotton Plant Improvement

By Doug Macron

Researchers from the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan (ASU) and Texas A&M University this month reported data showing that RNAi-based silencing of a photoreceptor gene in cotton can significantly enhance a number of traits related to the plant's commercial applications.
The effects, which were also shown to be transferrable to another cotton variety via conventional sexual hybridization, suggest that many of the desirable characteristics of high-quality but low-yielding Egyptian cotton can be obtained in Upland cotton, which produces lesser quality fibers but accounts for about 95 percent of the world's cotton given its high yield, according to one of the study's authors.
The genetic improvement of Upland cotton fiber quality has long been a key objective for cotton breeders, but has proven difficult due to issues of segregation distortion, Ibrokhim Abdurakhmonov, an ASU researcher and lead author of the new study, told Gene Silencing News this week. Specifically, there exists a negative correlation between fiber quality traits and yield components, and between fiber quality and boll maturity.
So rather than attempting, for instance, to introduce desirable Egyptian cotton traits into Upland cotton plants, "we [hypothesized] that Upland cotton fiber could be improved itself without integrating [other] cotton genes," Abdurakhmonov explained.
Light is known the be a key environmental factor controlling plant development and morphology, and plants respond to light through various photoreceptor systems including the phytochrome red/far-red (R/FR) photoreceptor gene family. And in cotton, this gene family has been shown to have a significant effect on the length and diameter of developing fibers.
As a PhD student at Texas A&M, Abdurakhmonov had studied the role of phytochrome genes in cotton, identifying one in particular — PHYA1 — that appeared to have a direct role in fiber length, he said. Aiming to build off this work, Abdurakhmonov began collaborating with former colleagues at Texas A&M, as well as partners at the US Department of Agriculture, to see if RNAi could be used to selectively inhibit this gene and boost cotton fiber length.
As described in a paper appearing this month in Nature Communications, the scientists created an RNAi construct based on a Hellsgate vector against a PHYA1-specific fragment with significant similarity to other phytochrome genes. Still, because "effective RNAi suppression typically requires 80-100 percent nucleotide identity, we anticipated that our construct would only target the PHYA1 genes," they wrote.
Transgenic plants were created using the vectors, and these showed "rapid and vigorous lateral and main root development," as well as elongated petioles, versus control plants. Fibers obtained from the transformed plants also proved to be at least 17 percent longer than those from control plants and displayed earlier flowering and earlier boll maturity.
Further analysis showed that the RNAi plant fibers were thicker and more uniform compared with fibers from control plants.
The phenotypes beyond fiber elongation weren't entirely expected as PHYA1 had not been linked to them before, but it was the early flowering phenotype that really caught the researchers' attention. PHYA1 expression, Abdurakhmonov noted, is directly associated with flowering, therefore its suppression should delay effect, not speed it up.
"When we checked gene expression, the results were very unusual," with around a 70 percent suppression of PHYA1 but as much as a 20-fold increase in other phytochrome genes, he said. The exact mechanism behind this outcome is not clear, but the investigators concluded that there is a compensatory effect between the genes.
Based on data on various phytochrome genes in different plant species, they believe that it is the upregulation of the non-target genes that is behind the non-fiber elongation phenotypes observed in the RNAi cotton. Increased PHYE expression, for example, has been shown to boost yield in tobacco and potatoes.
Notably, Abdurakhmonov and his colleagues were able to transfer the RNAi-associated traits obtained in the Upland cotton plants to a line of plants adapted to grow in Uzbekistan using conventional sexual crosses. The result was a plant that maintained the improved phenotypes but was "well-adapted for local growing conditions and cultivation practices," the researchers wrote in Nature Communications.
Overall, the findings show that "modulation of phytochrome photoreceptor activity using RNAi not only provides a solution to a longstanding problem for conventional cotton breeders … but may also lead to significantly increased income for cotton producers worldwide, thus opening a new paradigm in Upland cotton improvement," the team concluded.
With an eye toward commercializing their approach, Abdurakhmonov said that he and his colleagues have filed for patent protection on their discoveries and are preparing to test their plants in large field studies under various environmental conditions.

 

Doug Macron
Editor - Gene Silencing News
www.genesilencingnews.com
215.348.9836

 




Nature communications 24.01.2014 16:26

ARTICLE

Received 15 Jul 2013 | Accepted 4 Dec 2013 | Published 16 Jan 2014

Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L

Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov1, Zabardast T. Buriev1, Sukumar Saha2, Johnie N. Jenkins2, Abdusattor Abdukarimov1 & Alan E. Pepper3

Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to B70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to B20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10–17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

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Наука – один из важных факторов развития страны 25.12.2013 13:00

Наука во многом определяет настоящее и будущее любого государства. Наша Родина издревле
славилась великими учеными и мыслителями. Они внесли неоценимый вклад в сокровищницу
мировой цивилизации и в значительной степени определили поступательное развитие мировой
науки и культуры. Сегодня ученые Академии наук страны, продолжая традиции великих
предков, трудятся на благо социально-экономического, научно-технического, культурного и
духовно-нравственного развития независимого Узбекистана.

Подробнее: http://uza.uz/ru/society/26494/




Мировое признание новой технологии ученых ЦГБ 23.12.2013 11:24

Членами Международного комитета по хлопку – ICAC, занимающегося в международном масштабе мониторингом сферы хлопководства, являются более сорока хлопкосеющих стран, в том числе и Узбекистан. С 2009 года ICAC проводит конкурс «Исследователь года». В 2013 году победа в нем была присуждена директору Центра геномики и биоинформатики Академии наук Узбекистана доктору биологических наук, профессору Иброхиму Абдурахмонову за фундаментальные исследования генома хлопчатника.

Подробнее: http://uza.uz/ru/society/26601/




Открытие сайта 01.11.2013 11:15

CGB_website

Запущен вебсайт Центра геномики и биоинформатики.

 




Уважаемые юноши и девушки!

Уважаемые юноши и девушки!

Поздравляю вас с Днем молодежи! Этот день в нашей стране отмечается как праздник, который служит уникальным стимулом для поощрения достижений молодежи. Особое внимание уделяется достижениям юношей и девушек, а также поддержке талантливых, честных и целеустремленных молодых людей.

Тот факт, что 64% населения Узбекистана составляют молодые люди - бесценное достояние для нашей республики. В настоящее время ведутся работы по решению многих вопросов и проблем, волнующих подрастающее поколение, поиску ответов на большинство вопросов, одним словом, объединению молодежи в достижении благородных целей. В частности, выделение 50 миллиардов сумов на инновационные идеи и научные проекты молодежи в рамках конкурсов «Академическая мобильность» и «Будущий ученый», организованных Академией молодежи при Министерстве инновационного развития - наглядный тому пример.

Между тем были объявлены конкурсы для молодежи «Третий ренессанс - глазами молодежи», хакатон «Urban.Tech.Uzbekistan», «20 лучших стартап-проектов 2020 года» и награждены их победители. Технологическая мобильная образовательная платформа TechnoBus, которая направлена на обучение молодежи в отдаленных районах страны, охватила такие регионы, как Ташкентская, Джизакская, Сырдарьинская и Самаркандская область.

Поздравляю вас с сегодняшним праздником и желаю успехов всей молодежи нашего государства в их усилиях по созданию проектов, которые будут способствовать дальнейшему развитию нашей страны и сделают Узбекистан одной из развитых стран мира!

Иброхим Абдурахмонов
Министр инновационного развития, академик